International Journal of Infection

Published by: Kowsar

A Study of The Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis in Household Contacts of Patients with Active Tuberculosis in Kurdistan Region of Iraq: A Brief Report

Nawfal Hussein 1 , * , Amer A Balatay 2 , Lokman A Almizori 3 and Hilbeen H Saifullah 3
Authors Information
1 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq
2 College of Pharmacy, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq
3 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Azadi Hospital, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq
Article information
  • International Journal of Infection: April 30, 2019, 6 (2); e90402
  • Published Online: April 23, 2019
  • Article Type: Brief Report
  • Received: February 6, 2019
  • Revised: March 16, 2019
  • Accepted: April 7, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/iji.90402

To Cite: Hussein N, Balatay A A, Almizori L A, Saifullah H H. A Study of The Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis in Household Contacts of Patients with Active Tuberculosis in Kurdistan Region of Iraq: A Brief Report, Int J Infect. 2019 ; 6(2):e90402. doi: 10.5812/iji.90402.

Copyright © 2019, International Journal of Infection. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK); Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE (UK). Tuberculosis: Clinical diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: Guidance; 2006.
  • 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Essential components of a tuberculosis prevention and control program: Recommendations of the advisory council for the elimination of tuberculosis. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report; 1995.
  • 3. Metcalfe JZ, Houben RMGJ, Dodd PJ. The global burden of latent tuberculosis infection: A re-estimation using mathematical modelling. PLoS Med. 2016;13(10). e1002152. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002152. [PubMed: 27780211]. [PubMed Central: PMC5079585].
  • 4. Keskiner R, Ergonul O, Demiroglu Z, Eren S, Baykam N, Dokuzoguz B. Risk of tuberculous infection among healthcare workers in a tertiary-care hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2004;25(12):1067-71. doi: 10.1086/502345. [PubMed: 15636294].
  • 5. Skodric-Trifunovic V, Markovic-Denic L, Nagorni-Obradovic L, Vlajinac H, Woeltje KF. The risk of occupational tuberculosis in Serbian health care workers. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13(5):640-4. [PubMed: 19383199].
  • 6. Al-Lami F, Armean P, Al-Ameri AH. Prevalence of latent TB infection among health care workers in three main TB health facilities, Baghdad, Iraq 2013. J Fac Med. 2014;56(3):339-42.
  • 7. Pai M, Gokhale K, Joshi R, Dogra S, Kalantri S, Mendiratta DK, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in health care workers in rural India: Comparison of a whole-blood interferon gamma assay with tuberculin skin testing. JAMA. 2005;293(22):2746-55. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.22.2746. [PubMed: 15941804].
  • 8. Nasehi M, Hashemi-Shahraki A, Doosti-Irani A, Sharafi S, Mostafavi E. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among tuberculosis laboratory workers in Iran. Epidemiol Health. 2016;39. e2017002. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2017002.
  • 9. Fox GJ, Barry SE, Britton WJ, Marks GB. Contact investigation for tuberculosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2013;41(1):140-56. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00070812. [PubMed: 22936710]. [PubMed Central: PMC3533588].
  • 10. Lee SJ, Lee SH, Kim YE, Cho YJ, Jeong YY, Kim HC, et al. Risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection in close contacts of active tuberculosis patients in South Korea: A prospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:566. doi: 10.1186/s12879-014-0566-4. [PubMed: 25404412]. [PubMed Central: PMC4237765].
  • 11. Younossian AB, Rochat T, Ketterer JP, Wacker J, Janssens JP. High hepatotoxicity of pyrazinamide and ethambutol for treatment of latent tuberculosis. Eur Respir J. 2005;26(3):462-4. doi: 10.1183/09031936.05.00006205. [PubMed: 16135729].
  • 12. Huang YW, Shen GH, Lee JJ, Yang WT. Latent tuberculosis infection among close contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in central Taiwan. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14(11):1430-5. [PubMed: 20937183].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments